Benchmarking typically involves comparing the performance of two or more programs that do the same thing. Sometimes this might involve comparing two or more different programs, e.g. Firefox vs Safari vs Chrome. Sometimes it involves comparing two different versions of the same program. This latter case lets us reliably answer the question “did this change speed things up?”

Benchmarking is a complex topic and a thorough coverage is beyond the scope of this book, but here are the basics.

First, you need workloads to measure. Ideally, you would have a variety of workloads that represent realistic usage of your program. Workloads using real-world inputs are best, but microbenchmarks and stress tests can be useful in moderation.

Second, you need a way to run the workloads, which will also dictate the metrics used.

  • Rust’s built-in benchmark tests are a simple starting point, but they use unstable features and therefore only work on nightly Rust.
  • Criterion and Divan are more sophisticated alternatives.
  • Hyperfine is an excellent general-purpose benchmarking tool.
  • Bencher can do continuous benchmarking on CI, including GitHub CI.
  • Custom benchmarking harnesses are also possible. For example, rustc-perf is the harness used to benchmark the Rust compiler.

When it comes to metrics, there are many choices, and the right one(s) will depend on the nature of the program being benchmarked. For example, metrics that make sense for a batch program might not make sense for an interactive program. Wall-time is an obvious choice in many cases because it corresponds to what users perceive. However, it can suffer from high variance. In particular, tiny changes in memory layout can cause significant but ephemeral performance fluctuations. Therefore, other metrics with lower variance (such as cycles or instruction counts) may be a reasonable alternative.

Summarizing measurements from multiple workloads is also a challenge, and there are a variety of ways to do it, with no single method being obviously best.

Good benchmarking is hard. Having said that, do not stress too much about having a perfect benchmarking setup, particularly when you start optimizing a program. Mediocre benchmarking is far better than no benchmarking. Keep an open mind about what you are measuring, and over time you can make benchmarking improvements as you learn about the performance characteristics of your program.