Type Sizes

Shrinking oft-instantiated types can help performance.

For example, if memory usage is high, a heap profiler like DHAT can identify the hot allocation points and the types involved. Shrinking these types can reduce peak memory usage, and possibly improve performance by reducing memory traffic and cache pressure.

Furthermore, Rust types that are larger than 128 bytes are copied with memcpy rather than inline code. If memcpy shows up in non-trivial amounts in profiles, DHAT’s “copy profiling” mode will tell you exactly where the hot memcpy calls are and the types involved. Shrinking these types to 128 bytes or less can make the code faster by avoiding memcpy calls and reducing memory traffic.

Measuring Type Sizes

std::mem::size_of gives the size of a type, in bytes, but often you want to know the exact layout as well. For example, an enum might be surprisingly big, which might be caused by one outsized variant.

The -Zprint-type-sizes option does exactly this. It isn’t enabled on release versions of rustc, so you’ll need to use a nightly version of rustc. Here is one possible invocation via Cargo:

RUSTFLAGS=-Zprint-type-sizes cargo +nightly build --release

And here is a possible invocation of rustc:

rustc +nightly -Zprint-type-sizes input.rs

It will print out details of the size, layout, and alignment of all types in use. For example, for this type:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
enum E {
    A,
    B(i32),
    C(u64, u8, u64, u8),
    D(Vec<u32>),
}
}

it prints the following, plus information about a few built-in types.

print-type-size type: `E`: 32 bytes, alignment: 8 bytes
print-type-size     discriminant: 1 bytes
print-type-size     variant `D`: 31 bytes
print-type-size         padding: 7 bytes
print-type-size         field `.0`: 24 bytes, alignment: 8 bytes
print-type-size     variant `C`: 23 bytes
print-type-size         field `.1`: 1 bytes
print-type-size         field `.3`: 1 bytes
print-type-size         padding: 5 bytes
print-type-size         field `.0`: 8 bytes, alignment: 8 bytes
print-type-size         field `.2`: 8 bytes
print-type-size     variant `B`: 7 bytes
print-type-size         padding: 3 bytes
print-type-size         field `.0`: 4 bytes, alignment: 4 bytes
print-type-size     variant `A`: 0 bytes

The output shows the following.

  • The size and alignment of the type.
  • For enums, the size of the discriminant.
  • For enums, the size of each variant (sorted from largest to smallest).
  • The size, alignment, and ordering of all fields. (Note that the compiler has reordered variant C‘s fields to minimize the size of E.)
  • The size and location of all padding.

Once you know the layout of a hot type, there are multiple ways to shrink it.

Field Ordering

The Rust compiler automatically sorts the fields in struct and enums to minimize their sizes (unless the #[repr(C)] attribute is specified), so you do not have to worry about field ordering. But there are other ways to minimize the size of hot types.

Smaller Enums

If an enum has an outsized variant, consider boxing one or more fields. For example, you could change this type:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
type LargeType = [u8; 100];
enum A {
    X,
    Y(i32),
    Z(i32, LargeType),
}
}

to this:


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
type LargeType = [u8; 100];
enum A {
    X,
    Y(i32),
    Z(Box<(i32, LargeType)>),
}
}

This reduces the type size at the cost of requiring an extra heap allocation for the A::Z variant. This is more likely to be a net performance win if the A::Z variant is relatively rare. The Box will also make A::Z slightly less ergonomic to use, especially in match patterns. Example 1, Example 2, Example 3, Example 4, Example 5, Example 6.

Smaller Integers

It is often possible to shrink types by using smaller integer types. For example, while it is most natural to use usize for indices, it is often reasonable to stores indices as u32, u16, or even u8, and then coerce to usize at use points. Example 1, Example 2.

Boxed Slices

Rust vectors contain three words: a length, a capacity, and a pointer. If you have a vector that is unlikely to be changed in the future, you can convert it to a boxed slice with Vec::into_boxed_slice. A boxed slice contains only two words, a length and a pointer. Any excess element capacity is dropped, which may cause a reallocation.


#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
use std::mem::{size_of, size_of_val};
let v: Vec<u32> = vec![1, 2, 3];
assert_eq!(size_of_val(&v), 3 * size_of::<usize>());

let bs: Box<[u32]> = v.into_boxed_slice();
assert_eq!(size_of_val(&bs), 2 * size_of::<usize>());
}

The boxed slice can be converted back to a vector with slice::into_vec without any cloning or a reallocation.

Avoiding Regressions

If a type is hot enough that its size can affect performance, it is a good idea to use a static assertion to ensure that it does not accidentally regress. The following example uses a macro from the static_assertions crate.

  // This type is used a lot. Make sure it doesn't unintentionally get bigger.
  #[cfg(target_arch = "x86_64")]
  static_assertions::assert_eq_size!(HotType, [u8; 64]);

The cfg attribute is important, because type sizes can vary on different platforms. Restricting the assertion to x86_64 (which is typically the most widely-used platform) is likely to be good enough to prevent regressions in practice.